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Basic Copyright Information for Gerald W. Williams Collection

from Michigan Library Consortium Copyright and Digitization

  • Published; 1922 or earlier; author dead or alive
    In the public domain. No permission necessary.
  • Published without © notice* before 1989**
    Probably in public domain. Works published without © before 1978 are definitely in the public domain. No permission necessary.

*Any reference to copyright (copy., copyright, etc.) counts as being published with the © notice.

** We're only digitizing works published before 1978 because we don't have the time to investigate whether or not items published between 1978 and 1989 had their copyright renewed.

from Stanford Copyright & Fair Use Overview

  • Government Documents
    Any work created by a U.S. government employee or officer is in the public domain, provided that the work is created in that person's official capacity.
    Some federal publications (or portions of them) are protected under copyright law and that fact is usually indicated on the title page or in the copyright notice. For example, the IRS may acquire permission to use a copyrighted chart in a federal tax booklet. The document may indicate that a certain chart is "Copyright Dr. Matt Polazzo." In that case, you could not copy the chart without permission from Dr. Polazzo.

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